Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust. They were the first type of high vacuum pumps operating in the regime of free molecular flow, where the movement of the gas molecules can be better understood as diffusion than by conventional fluid dynamics. The principle of operation might be more precisely described as gas-jet pump, since diffusion plays a role also in other high vacuum pumps. In modern text books, the diffusion pump is categorized as a momentum transfer pump. The diffusion pump is widely used in both industrial and research applications. Most modern diffusion pumps use silicone oil as the working fluid.